NEW DELHI — India’s Supreme Court on Saturday ruled in favor of a Hindu temple on a disputed religious ground and ordered that alternative land be given to Muslims to build a mosque.
The dispute over land ownership has been one of the country’s most contentious issues.
The 16th-century Babri Masjid mosque in northern Indian town of Ayodhya in Uttar Pradesh state was destroyed by Hindu hard-liners in December 1992, sparking massive Hindu-Muslim violence that left 2,000 people dead.
Five Supreme Court justices said in a unanimous judgment that 5 acres (2.02 hectares) of land will be allotted to the Muslim community at a prominent place for building a mosque. The disputed land will be given to a board of trustees for the construction of a temple for Hindu god Ram.
Hindu supporters and activists celebrated the ruling on the court lawns, blowing bugles and chanting “Jai Shree Ram,” or hailing god Ram.
Nirmohi Akhara leader Dharam Das, center, celebrates the verdict outside the Supreme Court in New Delhi, India, Saturday, Nov. 9, 2019. (Associated Press)
An attorney representing the Muslims deplored the ruling.
“We are not satisfied with the verdict and it’s not up our expectation,” said Zafaryab Jilani, who is representing the Muslim community’s Babri Action committee.
“We are not satisfied with the verdict and it’s not up our expectation.”
— Zafaryab Jilani, Muslim community’s Babri Action committee
“These 5 acres of land don’t mean anything to us,” he said. “We are examining the verdict and whatever legal course is open for us.”
He hinted at filing a review petition in the Supreme Court challenging Saturday’s verdict. At the same time, he appealed to members of all communities to maintain peace.
Vishnu Shankar Jain, an attorney who represented the Hindu community, said the journey over several years had been a struggle.
“It was a huge legal battle and we are happy that we convinced the Supreme Court. It’s a historic moment for Hindus,” he said.
“It was a huge legal battle and we are happy that we convinced the Supreme Court. It’s a historic moment for Hindus.”
— Vishnu Shankar Jain, attorney for Hindu community
Raj Nath Singh, India’s defense minister, appealed to all to “accept the court verdict and maintain peace.”
In Islamabad, Pakistan’s foreign minister, Shah Mahmood Qureshi, criticized the verdict, saying it was indicative of the “hate based mindset” of the Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government.
“This is nothing but Modi’s government continued policies of cultivating seeds of hatred and promoting differences between the communities and religious segments of the population to achieve its designs,” he said.
Hindu hard-liners say they want to build a new temple to god Ram on the site, which they revere as his birthplace. They say the mosque was built after a temple dedicated to the Hindu god was destroyed by Muslim invaders.
After the demolition of the mosque, Hindus and Muslims took the issue to a lower court, which in 2010 ruled that the disputed land should be divided into three parts — two for Hindus and one for Muslims.
That was challenged in the Supreme Court by both communities.
The five judges started daily proceedings in August after mediation failed to find a compromise.
Modi had promised to build the temple in 2014 elections that brought him to power. But he later decided to wait for the court verdict despite pressure from millions of Hindu hard-liners who asked his government to bring legislation to build the temple
Authorities increased security in Ayodhya, 550 kilometers (350 miles) east of New Delhi, and deployed more than 5,000 paramilitary forces to prevent any attacks by Hindu activists on Muslims, who comprise 6% of the town’s more than 55,500 people.
The strict measures included a ban on the assembly of more than four people at one place.
The town looked deserted with authorities turning back thousands of Hindu pilgrims who were congregating for a religious event on Tuesday. Security forces also established a strong presence around the religious site and were not allowing anyone to visit.
People traveling in cars and buses to Ayodhya were being thoroughly checked at security barriers as commandos took up positions in bunkers across the town.
Police have arrested nearly 500 people for posting provocative messages on social media in the state. Police also have detained 5,000 people with criminal backgrounds across the state to prevent them from creating trouble after the court verdict, according to Uttar Pradesh state government spokesman Awanish Awasthi.
Authorities also stopped the entry of people into the state through land border from Nepal, and ordered all state schools and colleges to remain closed until Monday.